On May 9, 1961, Chairman of the FCC Newton N. Minow gave a speech to the National Association of Broadcasters, in which he described television as a "vast wasteland." Minow reportedly said years later that television had become a "toxic dump." Here is an excerpt from that speech: "When television is bad, nothing is worse. I invite each of you to sit down in front of your television set when your station goes on the air. Keep your eyes glued to that set until the station signs off. I can assure you that what you will observe is a vast wasteland. You will see a procession of game shows, formula comedies about totally unbelievable families, blood and thunder, mayhem, violence, sadism, murder, western bad men, western good men, private eyes, gangsters, more violence, and cartoons. And endlessly, commercials--many screaming, cajoling, and offending. And most of all, boredom. True, you'll see a few things you will enjoy. But they will be very, very few. And if you think I exaggerate, I only ask you to try it.