On May 10, 1945, J. Edgar Hoover, who was instrumental in the founding of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, was appointed as its first director. Hoover remained the FBI's director until his death in 1972. Later in life and after his death, Hoover became a controversial figure as evidence of his secretive abuses of power began to emerge. Hoover formalized the covert "dirty tricks" program under the name COINTELPRO (derived from Counter Intelligence Program) as a means of disrupting the Communist party in America. There were rumors that Hoover was a homosexual and that certain groups, such as the mafia, were blackmailing Hoover, which could explain Hoover's refusal to deny the existence of the mafia. When news of the raid on the Apalachin Meeting broke, Hoover then changed course. There are also rumors of Hoover having a cache of secret files on politicians, which might explain why he remained in office for such a long period of time.