Abolition of the "Index Librorum Prohibitorum"


On June 14, 1966, the Second Vatican Council announced the abolition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (or List of Forbidden Books), which was originally established in 1557. The Index included a number of authors and intellectuals whose works are widely read today in most leading universities and are now considered as the foundations of modern science. Authors include Johannes Kepler, Nicolas Malebranche, Jean-Paul Sartre, Montaigne, Voltaire, Denis Diderot, Victor Hugo, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, André Gide, Nikos Kazantzakis, Emanuel Swedenborg, Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, David Hume, René Descartes, Francis Bacon, Thomas Browne, John Milton, John Locke, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Blaise Pascal, and Hugo Grotius. Interestingly, Charles Darwin's works were never included.