age of enlightenment

  1. The Archetype

    Beethoven's "Für Elise"

    On April 27, 1810, German musician Ludwig van Beethoven composed Für Elise, which has become one of Beethoven's most famous and widely-recognized songs. Although the identity of "Elise" has been disputed by historians, a popular theory suggests that she was Baronin Therese von Droßdik, (born...
  2. The Archetype

    The Torture of Jean Calas

    Jean Calas, a Protestant merchant living in a predominantly Roman Catholic France, was accused of murdering his son in order to prevent him from converting to Roman Catholicism. Despite the fact that Calas maintained his innocence and claimed that his son, in fact, had committed suicide, Calas...
  3. Prophetess

    Copernicus's Forbidden Book

    On March 5, 1616, Nicolaus Copernicus's book, "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres," was added to the Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Forbidden Books), over 70 years after the book had been published. The book is considered to be the first on modern astronomy...